What is git?

Git is a powerful distributed version control system that allows developers to track changes in their code, collaborate with others, and manage software development projects efficiently. Here’s a summary of What is git and commands in Git:

Key Concepts:

Repository: A Git repository is a directory that tracks changes to your project’s files and directories. It contains the entire project history, including all commits and branches.

Commit: A commit is a snapshot of the changes made to files in your repository. It represents a single unit of change and includes a commit message that describes the changes.

Branch: A branch in Git is a flexible and movable pointer that points to a specific commit, enabling developers to work on new features or bug fixes independently from the main development line. Branches allow you to work on new features or bug fixes without affecting the main development line (usually the “master” or “main” branch).

Remote: A remote is a repository hosted on a server or another location, typically used for collaboration and backup purposes.

Basic Commands:

git init: `git init` is a command used to create a new Git repository from scratch in the current directory, setting up all the necessary data structures and configuration files to start version controlling the project.

git clone: `git clone` is a command that duplicates a remote repository and creates a local copy on your machine, allowing you to work on the project locally and collaborate with the original repository.

git add: Stages changes in the specified file(s) for the next commit.

git commit: git commit -m “Commit message”: Commits staged changes with a descriptive message.

git status: git status is a command that provides an overview of the changes in your working directory and staging area, highlighting which files have been modified, added to the staging area, or are untracked. It helps you keep track of the current state of your repository.

git log: Displays a log of all commits in reverse chronological order.

git branch: Lists all branches in the repository. An asterisk identifies the current branch.

git checkout: Change to another branch.

git merge: Merges the changes from the specified branch into the current branch.

git pull: git pull brings the latest changes from the remote repository and automatically merges them into your current branch.

git push: git push sends your local commits to the remote repository, keeping it in sync with your changes.

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git remote add: Links your local repository to a remote repository.

git fetch: `git fetch` retrieves changes from the remote repository, but it does not automatically integrate or merge them into your local branches.

git pull: `git pull` combines two actions in one: it fetches changes from the remote repository and automatically merges them into your current branch.

git push: `git push` uploads your local commits to the remote repository, keeping it up-to-date with your changes.
git clone: Creates a local copy of a remote repository.

Ignoring Files:

Create a .gitignore file in the root of the project to specify which files and directories should be ignored by Git.

Undoing Changes:

git reset: Unstages changes from the staging area.
git revert: Creates a new commit that undoes the changes introduced by the specified commit.
git checkout: Discards changes in the specified file and restores it to the state in the last commit.
git reset –hard: Discards all changes and moves the branch pointer to the specified commit, resetting the repository to that state.

This is just a brief overview of Git. Git offers a wide range of features and functionalities, and there are many advanced commands and workflows available for managing complex projects and collaborations.


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